Jordan occupies an area rich in archaeological remains and religious traditions. The Jordanian desert was home to hunters from the Early Paleolithic Period; their flint tools have been found widely distributed throughout the region.
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The Early Bronze Age c. Although many sites have been found in the northern portion of the country, few have been excavated, and little evidence of settlement in this period is found south of Al-Shawbak. Security was not reestablished until the Egyptians arrived after bce. It was once believed that the area was unoccupied from to bcebut a systematic archaeological survey has shown that the country had all Detroit dating settled population throughout the period.
This was confirmed by the discovery of a small temple at Amman with Egyptian, Mycenaean, and Cypriot imported objects.
Biblical s of the area, dating from the Middle Bronze Age onward, mention kingdoms such as Gilead in the north, Moab in central Jordan, and Midian in the south. At the time of the Exodusadult sex meet nlr Salinas Israelite s tried to pass through Edom in southern Jordan but were refused permission.
They were at first repelled by the Amoriteswhom they later defeated. The Israelite tribes of Gad and Reuben and half of the Manasseh group nonetheless settled in the conquered territory of the Ammonite s, Amorites, and Bashan and rebuilt many of the towns they had partially destroyed. It is inscribed in an eastern form of Canaanite, closely akin to Hebrew.
The next few centuries — bce were polish date Missouri by constant raiding from both sides of the Jordan River.
David attacked and devastated Moab and Edom. Although held for a time, Ammon with its capital, Rabbath Ammon modern Ammanregained independence on the death of David c.
However, hostilities remained constant between Judah and Edom; a Hebrew king, Amaziaheven captured Sela Petrathe capital. Revolts against Assyrian rule occurred in the s and s, but the country was retaken in — by Tiglath-pileser III reigned — bcewho then devastated Israelsent Gastonia chat rooms free people into exile, and divided the country into provinces under Assyrian governors.
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This policy of direct rule continued until the fall of the Assyrian empire in bce. The Assyrian texts are the first source to refer to the Nabataeanswho at this time occupied the land south and east of Edom ancient Midian. Little is known of the history of Jordan under the Neo-Babylonians and Persians, date native Lauderdale MN women during this period the Nabataeans infiltrated Edom and forced the Edomites into southern Palestine.
It was not until the Hellenistic rule of the Seleucids and the Ptolemies that the free sex phone Gilbert prospered, trade increased, and new towns were built. Hostilities between the Seleucids and Ptolemies enabled the Nabataeans to extend their kingdom northward and to increase their prosperity based on the caravan trade with Arabia and Syria. The northern part of Jordan was for a time in Jewish hands, and there were constant struggles between the Jewish Maccabees and the Seleucids.
Most of the Dead Sea Scrolls date from this period. During 64—63 bce the kingdom of Nabataea was conquered by the Romans under Pompeywho restored the Hellenistic cities destroyed by the Jews and set up the Decapolis ethiopian dating in Fontana, a league of 10 ancient Greek cities.
The country remained independent but paid imperial taxes. Roman policy seems to have been to maintain Nabataea as a buffer state against the desert tribes.
Nabataea was finally absorbed into the Roman Empire by Trajan in ce as the province of Palaestina Tertia. Under Roman rule Jordan prospered, and many new towns and villages were established. AfterChristianity became a recognized religion, and a large of churches were built. The area was devastated in the 6th and 7th centuries by the intermittent warfare free chat in Medford Byzantium and Sasanian Persia.
In the emperor Heraclius finally defeated the Persians and reestablished order, but Byzantium, gravely weakened by the long struggle, was unable to face the unexpected menace of a new power that had arisen in Arabia. The caliphs of the Umayyad dynasty — established their capital at Damascus and built hunting lodges and palaces in the Jordanian desert. Many Roman forts were also rebuilt.
After the Abbasids seized power inthe capital was transferred to Baghdad, and Syria, which had been the Umayyad metropolitan province, was severely repressed. Jordan, now distant from the centre of power, became a backwater and slowly meet polish women in Detroit to the old Bedouin way of life.
With the saucy flirt Point of Jerusalem by the Crusaders inthe Latin kingdom of Jerusalem was extended east of the Jordan, a principality known as Oultre Jourdain was established, and a capital was set up at Al-Karak. After the Crusaders retreated, the history of Jordan remained mostly uneventful. In the 19th century the Ottomans settled CircassianCaucasianand other refugees in Jordan to protect their communications with Arabia; assisted by Germany, they completed in the Hejaz Railway linking Damascus and Medina.
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History of Jordan Jordan occupies an area rich in archaeological remains and religious traditions. Biblical associations Biblical s of the area, dating from the Middle Bronze Age onward, mention kingdoms such as Gilead in the north, Moab in central Jordan, and Midian in the south. Ruins of the Roman city of Gerasa foregroundJarash, Jordan.
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